MBBR is one of the popular choices for aerobic treatment of wastewater. Conventional Activated Sludge requires a very large area, Whereas we can fit MBBR in the relatively smaller area. Its similar to activated sludge, but has additional media(biochips) for the growth of microorganism on it. It reduces the BOD and COD of the wastewater in a lesser area compare to  Activated sludge process.

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Hardness:- It shows the amount of multivalent ions mostly comprised of Calcium and Magnesium dissolve in water.

Definition:- Property of water by which it does not produce lather when reacting with soap.

Hard water contains a high amount of Calcium, Magnesium (Chloride, sulfate, carbonate, and bicarbonate) or any other metal iron. Whereas Soft water contains very less or Nill amount of this salt.

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UF- ultrafiltration is a type of Physical Filtration in which Pressure removes Suspended Particles from water based on the pore size of the membrane. Its pores size varies from 10-100 nm and sometimes pore size can be measured by molecular weight cut-off (MWCO), expressed in Dalton, It gives an idea of which size molecules will pass through a membrane. Filtrations having smaller cut-off than UF are Nano-filtration and Reverse osmosis and Filtration having Large Pore size then UF is Microfiltration. Most of Uf plants are Run Automatic with the help of PLC. The lifespan of the UF membrane is 2 to 5 Years depending on inlet Water Quality. Because of high porosity, we have to apply less pressure compare to Nanofiltration and R.O.

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